Active working language

A foreign language, which is acquired and mastered so well by the translator and translated into their native language, that no or minimal mistakes can be recognized by a native speaker after translation. In this way, high foreign language competence guarantees an optimal translation from the foreign language into the native language.


If a translation is required to be submitted to the authorities, it usually has to be certified. That means that the translation can only be carried out by a legal, authorized and sworn translator, who provides an apostille stamp, which certifies the completeness and accuracy of the translation.


One of the portal solutions developed by KERN to enable simplified order placement and handling for translation services.


Abbreviation of Content Management System

A content management system  is a system that allows and organizes the creation and editing of content consisting of text and multimedia documents, mostly for the World Wide Web. The most used CM systems are  Joomla!, PHP-Fusion, TYPO3 and WordPress.

Computer-aided translation

The term Computer Aided Translation (CAT) refers to translation with the help of a computer. Computer-aided translation differs from automatic translation, in so far as automatic translation is solely carried out by the computer, whereas for computer-aided translations, the translation is carried out by a person, but with th help of computer tools.

Interpretation equipment/conference equipment

Technical equipment, which is necessary for interpreting international meetings, conferences, presentations, speeches, etc. These include, among other things, infrared simultaneous interpreting equipment for international events with many members, such as conferences, seminars or panel discussions, and personnel management systems used during factory visits or trade fairs if a group of listeners moves freely.


Abbreviation of: Desktop Publishing

Stands for the computerized formatting of high-quality documents, which may contain text and images. The goal is the publication of catalogues, magazines or books. For this, among other things, special software for the layout set-up is necessary.

Express translations

Translations which must be carried out, prepared and delivered within a particularly tight time frame.

Extraction tools

Extraction tools are used in terminology extraction. With their help, it is possible to generate a list of terminology candidates, which can then be selected and adjusted by a translator or a specialist.

Specialized translations

Extremely accurate translations conforming with the highest language requirements within certain disciplines (e.g. economics, science, technology). This is carried out using fixed, yet ever-evolving subject-specific terminology.

Corporate language training

As a result of the global economy and the resulting new markets, international companies and their employees are required to be able to communicate with foreign customers. Through corporate language training, participants receive practical training tailored to their company.

Whispered interpretation

Simultaneous, conference or negotiation interpreting for a single person, which is interpreted quietly, so as not to have a negative impact on the general proceedings.

Foreign language dubbing

The subsequent dubbing of a film's original language into another language.

Foreign language dubbing artists

Dubbing artists are often linguists, interpreters, speakers or actors, who are fluent in the language into which the material is being transmitted as well as their native language.

Foreign language subtitling

Subtitling of film material from their original language into another language, e.g. TV adverts, training videos, Powerpoint presentations. Here the cultural aspect of the original must be reflected in the choice of words and the spoken elements in the script must be reproduced in such a way that the content is fully understood.

Foreign language voice recording

The foreign language editing of audiovisual media, for example the dubbing of industrial or advertising clips, videos, CDs and audio tapes into another language. It is important to use native speakers to make the end product seem as if it were originally produced in the target language.


Abbreviation of: Hypertext Markup Language

HTML is a text-based mark-up language  for structuring content like texts, images and hyperlinks in documents. HTML documents are the basis of the World Wide Web and are displayed by a web browser .

Illustration and graphics

So that interrelated issues can be understood, complex technical issues should be visually displayed in the technical documents. The link between verbal and visual elements can quickly and effectively be communicated by operating procedures.

In-house training

See also: Corporate language training

Intercultural communication

The translator or the interpreter acts not only as an agent between two languages, but also as a mediator between two cultures. Therefore, a sound knowledge of the cultural aspects of their working languages is fundamental for them.


Internationalization is one of the requirements for the process of localization. The communicated information must be adjusted to the target market.

Translator's competence

The totality  of a professional translator's skills and knowledge. In addition to foreign and native language competence, this also includes cultural, subject-specific, communicative and theoretical translation knowledge that is needed to create a successful translation.

Conference interpreting

Simultaneous or consecutive interpreting of conferences or in conference-like situations. Can be achieved in a team or with an individual interpreter, both with or without interpreting equipment.

Consecutive interpreting

This is a form of interpreting used mainly for meetings or negotiations, particularly at a high level and in court. The successive interpretation of longer or shorter sections of text.


The target text (the translation) is mostly checked for its correctness in electronic form while comparing it to the original text. The focus of attention is on formal aspects. The end version is checked for mistakes in formality, coherence, tone, completeness, formatting, etc. This can occur in several steps.


Through editing the correct reproduction of the content of the original text and the completeness of the translation is checked.

Localization tools

Software localization resources (e.g. Alchemy Catalyst, Passolo, Visual Localize).

Automatic translation

The translation of texts using a computer program. The results gained by completely automatic translation processes are still incomplete. It is impossible to achieve an optimal translation result without the involvement of a human translator.

Native language

The language, of which the speaker has a perfect command, which has preferably been developed during childhood or early youth and further built upon through further education. To master a language at native-speaker level, complete knowledge of current and past social developments of the concerned country is also necessary. Generally, translators should only translate into their native language, if higher linguistic requirements have been set.

Native language principle

With their command of specialist areas, native translators can also reproduce small details from the original text with the necessary idiomatic feel of the language. An optimal translation result is achieved when a translator translates into their native language.

Patent translations

The translation of patent and patent-related texts, such as patent application texts at international patent offices and patent monitoring. Such translations deal with patent law firms, patent departments of large businesses, research and development and inventors among other things.

Project management

Management, coordination and project planning of translation orders, which because of their volume, complexity, the language combination, the difficulty of the text, special delivery dates or deadlines or the wish to have a text translated into several languages at the same time, requires special planning and processes.

Relay Interpreting

A second language is used in relay interpreting. A pre-interpreted text serves as a template for further interpreting. Relay interpreting is then employed if no interpreters for a particular language combination are available, for example for rare language combinations like Malay - Hindi.

Simultaneous interpreting

In simultaneous interpreting, the interpreter interprets simultaneously and continuously into the target language, using either simultaneous interpreting equipment in a booth or directly by whispering. In order to guarantee a high level of understanding during the precious interpreting time, the simultaneous interpreter must prepare carefully. Conference interpreting can be either simultaneous or consecutive.

Software localization

The alignment and language-specific adaptation of user interfaces with their menus, dialogue boxes and buttons, online help and printed documentation to the conditions of a specific target country.

Language training

Language training can take place in different forms. These include individual training, group training, intensive training, seminars, weekend workshops via educational leave and short courses abroad. The aim is to acquire foreign language skills.

Voice recognition

A spoken text is converted into written text through voice recognition with the help of a computer program. These programs are also used by translators. More recently, there are even new types of systems, which can recognize continuous speech instead of interrupted speech (with pauses between individual words) being necessary.

Language mediation

Generic term for translation and interpreting.

Language programs abroad

In a language exchange program, language acquisition is combined with the enrichment of a country's culture and mentality. Since the language can be used in a practical way outside language classes, progress can be quickly achieved.

Technical documentation

Documents, which describe technical products, such as operating instructions, user manuals or safety instructions.

Technical editing

Technical editors convert and organize the technical information in the operating and operating instructions. It is important that these texts are well formulated and understandable.

Technical author/editor

Technical knowledge is edited by technical editors according to text type and for special target audiences in such a way that the technical documentation is explained in a clear way and can be used as a template for translations into other languages. Various technological resources such as terminology and boilerplate databases are used for this purpose. Localization may result in an overlap between the tasks of the translator and of the technical editor.

Telephone interpreting

In the case of interpreting over the phone, an interpreter is included in a telephone connection between two participants. Here interpreters face unique challenges (such as disturbances in the line, difficulty in adjusting to the speaking partners and the content of the conversation), of which the circumstances sometimes demand a high degree of spontaneous reaction. Globalisation and migration increase the demand for such language services.


With  term4client™ , KERN offers the possibility of storing company-wide terminology that is relevant across different departments and international branches in an intelligent and structured way, making it accessible online for the entire company.

Terminology databases

Databanks, equivalency tables and terminology lists, which helps to standardize a company's language use, for example in the form of a company specific glossary or dictionary. Translators' work is also facilitated through the use of terminology databases.

Terminology extraction

Expensive procedure for establishment of a company's internal terminology, which offers the possibility to establish internal language consistency. This is done by a translator or a native-speaker proofreader.

TM systems

Abbreviation of: translation memory systems

Translation memory systems (such as Déjà Vu, Across, Trados, Transit) is software in which segments of a translation are stored in a database during the translation. This is done so that in the case of repeated occurrence, they can be retrieved in the same or a similar form and reused. This saves the translator having to search for previously translated phrases and allows them to produce more uniform translations.


 Transcription  is the representation of certain terms from a foreign  writing system  with the help of phonetic transcription or the terms being adapted to the pronunciation of the target language.


Content Management Framework for websites.

The system is specifically created for multilingual capability.

Translation tools

The blanket term for programs that can be useful for the work done by translators. These include localization tools, terminology management systems, automatic translation programs, translation memory systems, electronic dictionaries and glossaries, analysis programs, project management software, counting programs and many more.

Certified translations

A certified translation is defined as the translation of documents, which are of particular importance in legal matters (for example, notarial deeds, court records, private documents). Documents are translated by sworn translators, who attest to the completeness and accuracy of their translation with a stamp. A legalization can take place through a notary, if necessary,


Abbreviation of: 8-bit UCS Transformation Format

Is the most extensively used encoding for Unicode characters. UTF-8 is now also of central importance for global character encoding on the internet. UTF-8 has also been used to display language-specific characters in the HTML used in  web browsers.

Sworn translators

Translators or interpreters who are authorized to translate and certify documents and/or interpret for public authorities and in court. They have sworn a general oath that entitles them to do so. The conditions for this authorization are different from one state to another, a prerequisite, however, is a professional qualification as a translator or an interpreter or a qualification gained from a special aptitude test.

Liaison interpreting

This is the interpretation of lectures, readings and individual presentations. This is achievable with or without interpreter systems.

Website localization

Website translation and localization, for example for a multilingual company website. This includes the adaptation of various data and formats among other things.


Abbreviation of: Extensible Markup Language

XML is a markup language for the representation of hierarchically structured data in the form of text files.

Counting program

Programs for counting characters, words, lines or pages from original to target language. These programs were specifically developed for translators and are partly linked to a module for creating invoices. For the needs of a professional translator, MS Word's integrated counting programme is not sufficient.